For more than 200 years the primary focus of ocular care providers and optical industry has been on perfecting the optical focus of the eye through the utilization of spectacles, contact lenses, corneal and lens refractive surgery, cataract surgery. Retinal diseases (primarily diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and glaucoma) have now become the primary cause of mild, moderate, and severe vision loss throughout the world. These diseases cause severe vision loss because they are insidious in their onset and progression and are discovered only after extensive injury, most often to both eyes because the binocular vision often masks the early development in the first eye. A major problem is that practitioners fail to understand the type and severity of functional vision loss, because for nearly 170 years vision has been solely measured with the eye chart, Chart acuity measurement, however, does not measure functional vision but measures only high contrast edge detection of black letters against a white screen in the central 1° of fixation. It does not measure vision under luminance and contrast conditions or the fixation times that are typically required for successful completion of routine day and evening tasks (0.1 to 0.3 seconds). When studies have attempted to correlate chart acuity with patient reported visual function outcomes or with performance of simple daily tasks, it fails.